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There were____ Nadus from Kolathunadu in the north to the Venad in the south and out of them, ____ accepted the rule of the Perumal.
A. 16, 14
B. 14, 12
C. 14, 14
D. 16, 16

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Last updated date: 22nd Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Over the ages, the legend of the Cheraman Perumal wielded considerable political power in Kerala. Kerala chiefdoms used the legend to provide legitimacy for their rule (most of the major chiefly houses in medieval Kerala traced its origin back to the legendary allocation by the Perumal).

Complete answer:
Sthanu Ravi was a Perumal who ruled over the Nadus of Kerala. Kerala's Perumal dynasty was a ruling dynasty in modern-day Kerala, India. Their presence seemed to be restricted at first to the region between present-day Quilon and Quilandy, but it later grew to include the Chandragiri River in north Kerala and Nagercoil in the south.

Option A: 16, 14- This option is wrong because even though the total number of Nadus from Kolathunadu in the north to the Venad in the south is incorrect, it is also well known that the rule of the Perumals was accepted by all 14 Nadus.

Option B: 14, 12 This option is wrong because the total number of Nadus from Kolathunadu in the north to the Venad in the south was 14 and it is also well known that the rule of the Perumals was accepted by all 14 Nadus.

Option C: 14, 14 - The rule of the Perumal is also known as the Chera dynasty.
- In the early history of the present-day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in southern India, the Chera dynasty was one of the most significant lineages. The early Cheras was recognized as one of the three major forces of ancient Tamilakam, which was a macro-region in south India in the early centuries of the Common Period, alongside the Cholas of Uraiyur and the Pandyas of Madurai.
- The Chera country was strategically located to benefit from maritime trade across the Indian Ocean's extensive networks. Several sources attest to the exchange of spices, especially black pepper, with Middle Eastern and Graeco-Roman merchants.
- The Nadus were governed by the Perumals, who ruled Kerala from Mahodayapuram. For the first time in Kerala, all 14 nadus from Kolathunadu in the north to Venad in the south embraced the Perumals' rule, establishing a centralized government.

Option D: 16, 16 -This option is wrong because the total number of Nadus from Kolathunadu in the north to the Venad in the south was 14, not 16.

Since, the Perumals controlled all the Nadus therefore, the correct answer is C. 14, 14.

Note: By the 9th century CE, a kingdom centered in Mahodayapuram had been founded. Perumal was the name given to the kingdom's rulers. In those days, the present-day Kodungallur and its environs were known as Mahodayapuram. Cheras and Cheramans were other names for Perumals. The majority of present-day Kerala was ruled by Perumal.