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The exact location of an electron cannot be determined in space
A.Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
B.Pauli Exclusion Principle
C.Hund’s Rule
D.Bohr Model of the hydrogen atom

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint:To answer this question, recall the concept of quantum mechanics which govern the principles mentioned in this question. The principle behind this question states that the exact speed and location of any subatomic particle cannot be determined with absolute certainty.

Complete step by step answer:
Analysing each of the options systematically:
According to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for any particle exhibiting both particle and wave nature, it will not be possible to accurately determine both the position and velocity at the same time.
According to the Pauli exclusion principle in an atom, no two electrons will have an identical set or the same quantum numbers. There salient rules of Pauli Exclusion Principle are that only two electrons can occupy the same orbital and the two electrons that are present in the same orbital should be having opposite spins.
According to Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity rule for a given electronic configuration of an atom, the electron with maximum multiplicity falls lowest in energy.
The Bohr model was an atomic model based on the hydrogen atom. It was the first atomic model to successfully explain the radiation spectra of atomic hydrogen. It was, however, contradictory with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Hence, the exact location of an electron cannot be determined in space is based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle .

Hence option A is correct.

To understand Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in a better way, consider an example where the position of an electron is measured. Now to measure the position of an object, we need light, so a photon must collide with it and return to the measuring device. We know that photons hold some finite momentum, a transfer of momenta will occur when the photon collides with the electron. This transfer of momenta from photon to electron will cause the momentum of the electron to change. This would mean that an attempt at measuring the position of a particle will cause uncertainty in the value of its momentum. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle has a negligible impact on macroscopic objects as the mass of a ball is much larger than that of an electron.