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State the main function of the lymphocytes of the blood.

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Last updated date: 19th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The white blood cells consist of the two major types of cells - granulocytes and
agranulocytes. Lymphocytes are the component of leucocyte and its main function is to generate an immune response against the antigen and provide protection.
Step by step answer:
Lymphocytes – These are also known as the Micropoliceman. They are the smallest white blood cells. They have a size of 6 microns. They have a horseshoe-shaped nucleus. Their number increases during the bacterial or viral infection. The main function of the lymphocytes is to serve as part of the immune system. They produce specific antibodies. These antibodies help in responding to foreign invaders in the body and then eliminate them. Hence, they provide our body protection against infectious diseases.
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There are three main types of lymphocytes. These are –
T cell – They plan an important role in cell-mediated immunity. They play an important role in the destruction of the antigens. They are further classified as –
Cytotoxic T cells – They kill the cells containing antigens by binding with them
Helper T cells – They help B cells in the antibody production and they also help in the activation of T cells.
Regulatory T cells – They are also known as Suppressor T cells. They suppress the response of B cells and other T cells to antigens.
B cell – They create antigen-specific antibodies. They are thus responsible for the humoral immunity of the human body.
NK cell – They are known as the natural killer cells. Their functioning is similar to cytotoxic T cells. They have a non-specific antigen response.
Additional Information: The composition of the White Blood Cells is as follows –
The white blood cells consist of the two major types of cells. These are as follows –
Granulocytes - The granulocytes are known so because they have small granules in their matrix. They make up about \(68\% \) of the WBCs. They range from 10 – 12 microns.
Agranulocytes – The agranulocytes have no granules in them. They make up \(32\% \) of the WBCs. And, these range from 6 – 22 microns.
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Granulocytes have three types of cells. These three types of cells are as follows –
-Neutrophils – These are also known as the Heterophils. They make up about \(65\% \) of the White blood cells. They have a multi-lobed nucleus. They are phagocytic in nature. Their number increases during the pus infection.
-Eosinophils – These are also known as the Acidophils. They make up about \(2 \cdot 8\% \) of the White blood cells. They have a bi-lobed nucleus. They act during the allergy. Their number increases during the worm infection.
-Basophils – These are also known as the Mast cells. They make up about \(0 \cdot 2\% \) of the White blood cells. They have an S-shaped nucleus. They form Heparin, Histamine, and Serotonin. Their number increases during the chickenpox infection.

Agranulocytes have two types of cells. These three types of cells are as follows –
-Monocytes – These are also known as the Macrophages. They are the largest White blood cells. They have a size of 22 microns. They have a large, round nucleus. They are the main phagocytic cells. Their number increases during Tuberculosis.
-Lymphocytes
The two terms lymphocytes and leukocytes are different from each other. Leukocytes are another name for the cell that is commonly known as the White blood cell or WBC. Whereas, the lymphocyte is a component of the WBC.

Note: The white blood cells consist of the two major types of cells - Granulocytes (Neutrophils involved in phagocytosis, Eosinophils involves during infection, and Basophils involves during an allergy) and Agranulocytes (Monocytes involved in phagocytosis and Lymphocytes involved in generating immune response).