Question
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Part of the brain that controls respiration, heartbeat and peristalsis is
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Pons
C. Cerebrum
D. Cerebellum

Answer Verified Verified
Hint: Long stem like structure that controls the autonomic functions and also responsible for regulating basic function of the nervous system.

Complete answer:
A part of the brain that controls respiration, heartbeat and peristalsis is medulla oblongata. Medulla oblongata controls the autonomic functions of the part of the brains and connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord for the proper functioning of the body organs. Medulla oblongata is also responsible for regulating the basic functions of the nervous system which includes:

Respiration: chemoreceptors.
Cardiac center: parasympathetic system and sympathetic system.
Reflex centers like coughing, sneezing etc.

The medulla is found at the top of the spinal cord and contains a group of neurons that transmits electrical impulses to the heart and lungs to control the breathing rate, peristalsis and heart rate.
Cerebrum is located at the rear of the brain below the cerebellum and helps in controlling and coordinating the movement. Cerebrum is the largest area of the brain that is responsible for reasoning, emotions.
Pons contains nuclei that controls signal and deals with sleep, respiration, eye movement, etc. Medulla oblongata has two parts: superior part (upper open part) and inferior part (lower closed part).

Thus, the correct option is A. i.e., Medulla Oblongata.

Note: The centers for control of respiration, heartbeat and peristalsis are present in medulla. Pons are only having centers for sensory and motor controls whereas cerebellum is associated with functions like balance, planning, etc.
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