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# Mention the basic forces in nature.

Last updated date: 17th Sep 2024
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- Hint – Here we will proceed by using the approach of four fundamental forces in nature that is gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force.

Complete step-by-step solution -
Newton defined a force as anything that causes an object of mass $'m'$ to move with an acceleration $'a'$.

Gravitational force
Gravitational force is the force of earth that holds us to the planet. Gravitational forces are the force responsible for holding planets in their orbits and this is possible only because of their infinitely long range.
What is Gravitational force?
Gravitational force is one of the four fundamental forces in nature. It is the weakest of four. It is also the attractive force which arises from the gravitational interaction.
According to Newton’s law of gravity, it states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
When considered for 5 massive objects like the sun, or giant planets, gravitational force is considered to be strong as the masses of these objects are also large. On the atomic level, this force is considered weak.
Gravitational force formula
Gravitational force can be represented as follows:
$Fg = \dfrac{{G{m_1}{m_2}}}{{{r^2}}}$
Where, $Fg$ is the gravitational force
$G$ is the universal gravitational constant $S$
${m_1}$ and ${m_2}$ are the masses of the objects in consideration
$r$ is the distance between the centres of the two objects in consideration.
Gravitational force of Earth
The gravitational force of the earth is $9.870m$ per ${s^2}$.
Examples:
The revolving of the moon around the earth is due to gravitational attraction between them.

Electromagnetic force
The fundamental force associated with electric and magnetic fields. The electromagnetic force is carried by the photon and is responsible for atomic, structure, chemical reactions, the attractive and repulsive forces associated with electrical charge and magnetism, and all other electromagnetic phenomena.
Examples:
Why does a comb get charged when you continuously brush your hair? Why are the subatomic particles held together? It is because of electromagnetic forces.
How electromagnetic force is created?
The direction of magnetic flux produced by a permanent magnet is always from $N -$pole to $S$- pole. When a conductor is placed in a magnetic field and current flows in the conductor, the magnetic field and the current interact with each other to produce force. The force is called the “electromagnetic force”.

Strong Nuclear Forces
Out of the four fundamental forces, nuclear forces are the strongest attractive forces. Electromagnetism holds matter together, but there was no explanation on how the nucleus is held together in the atom. If we consider only electromagnetism and the gravity, then the nucleus should actually fly off in different directions. But it does not, implying that there exists another force within the nucleus which is stronger than the gravitational force and electromagnetic force. This is where nuclear forces come into play. Strong nuclear forces are responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together.
This is the dominant force in reaction and is so strong that it binds protons with similar charges with the nucleus. It is mostly attractive in nature but can be repulsive sometimes. It has a very short range of just 1 fm.
It acts over a range of about ${10^{ - 15}}$m.

Weak Nuclear Forces
Weak force is the force existing between the elementary particles which are responsible for certain processes to take place at a low probability.
Example
Weak nuclear forces are responsible for the radioactive decay, specifically for the beta decay, specifically the beta decay neutrino interactions. It has a very short range (less than 1 fm) and this force, as the name suggests, is weak in nature. This force is weak compared to the strong force as the name implies and has the shortest range of ${10^{ - 18}}m$, which is 0.1% of the diameter of the proton.
Properties of weak force:
Weak nuclear force is the only force which does not follow parity-symmetry.
It is the only force that does not follow charge-parity symmetry.
Weak nuclear force is responsible for the change in quark into other forms.
Carrier particles with significant masses are responsible for the propagation of the weak force.

Note – Whenever we come up with this type of problem, one must know that a force can be defined as the push or pull on an object that causes it to change its state of rest or uniform motion. These forces prevent the drifting of matter in the universe and helps keep it together.