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Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: We know that functional groups are the atoms or groups of atoms that decide the chemical reactivity of an organic compound. Some examples of functional groups are alkane, alkene, alcohol, aldehyde etc.

Complete step by step answer:
Let’s learn about functional groups in detail. They are specific groups of atoms or bonds that decide the chemical reactions of that compound. In organic chemistry, the naming of compounds is based on the functional groups present in the compound. We have to memorize the names of the functional groups, such as, alkane, alkene, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, amide, amine etc.

Let’s understand the functional groups with the help of their structure.

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Alkane is a functional group which indicates that only single bonds are present in the compound.
Alkene is a functional group which indicates the presence of double bond in the compound
Alkyne is a functional group which indicates the presence of triple bond in the compound
Alcohol is a functional group composed of oxygen and hydrogen atoms and it forms bonds with an alkyl group.
Aldehyde (-CHO) is a functional group in which a carbonyl group is bonded to an alkyl group and a hydrogen atom.
Ketone is another functional group in which a carbonyl group is bonded to two alkyl groups.
Carboxylic group is another functional group in which a carbonyl group is bonded to an alkyl group and an alcohol group.

Note: The number of organic compounds present on Earth is in millions and that’s why memorizing chemical reactions of each compound is difficult. It is to be noted that molecules having identical functional groups undergo similar reactions.