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What was the land under the control of temples called?
A. Devaswam
B. Brahmaswam
C. Cherikkal
D. Agrahara

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Hint: During the Sangam age and Sangam literature in Tamil, the society, the centres of civilization and areas of settled agriculture had evolved. There were different types of land during the medieval period in Kerala which were known by different names and were allotted to different people including temples.

Complete answer: Kunjan Pillai was the one who traced the origin of land ownership in the mediaeval period of Kerala. According to him the private ownership of land began in Kerala before the Sangam age and Sangam Literature. Lands were distributed to people belonging to different backgrounds such as Pulayas, Vedas, valluvas, local chieftains and cultivators. The system of land inheritance was patrilineal and tracers or appearance of the caste system and untouchability has not been found.
Thus the lands that were under the ownership of temples or deities were called Devaswam.
Though they came into existence after the end of the sixth century.
-Land under the ownership of Brahmins was known as brahmaswom. By the 12th century, brahmins became the most dominant group. They succeeded and influenced the kings to believe in the divine origin and on Brahmin superiority therefore by virtue of religious leadership and temple management Brahmins became powerful landlords by the process of converting management rights to ownership rights.
-Under the Kulasekara dynasty ownership of land was vested in Chera kings whose chieftains enjoyed land rights. Under this, the lands who were acquired by kings or the feudatories were cultivated by the native population and these were known as Cherikkal lands.
-Agraha lands were granted to priests particularly Brahmins for the maintenance of temples and etc to sustain their families.
Therefore the correct answer is option-A.

Note: With the origin and growth of Brahmin settlements in Kerala the process of migration and settlement beginning in the early Sangam age. By the end of the 8th century, the Brahmin settlement and their lands had become a decisive economic factor.