Hint:Jyotirao 'Jyotiba' Govindrao Phule is considered to be a famous social reformer and thinker of nineteenth century India. He headed the agitation in India against the existing caste restrictions. He revolted against the Brahmins' domination and fought for the rights of peasants and other citizens of the low caste. In India, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was also a pioneer of women's education and struggled for girls' education throughout his life. It is claimed that he was the first Hindu to open an orphanage for children who were unfortunate.
Option A) Yes, he was the first to raise his voice against Brahmans in Maharashtra in the 1870. He was one of the 19th century's most radical activist-thinkers who waged a constant battle against the hegemony of Brahmin and the religion of Brahmin, fought against the oppression of Shudras (the lowest Varna in the Brahmin hierarchy of Varna), Ati-Shudras (now known as Dalits) and women.
Option B) Yes, Phule through his book Gulamgiri (1872) and his organization Satsyodhak Mandal, declared the need to save the lower castes from the hypocritical Brahmans and their scriptures.
Option C) Yes, both an elite-based conservative movement and a genuine mass-based radicalism were in his Satyashodhak Mandal. As the organisation expanded through Maharashtra, the original devotion of the Samaj to education and charitable works was mixed with the spouse of this anti-brahman rhetoric.
Option D) No, the urban trained marathas were not his most ardent followers.
Therefore, Option D) “the urban educated marathas were his most ardent followers “ is the correct answer.
Note:- In 1876, Phule was appointed to the then Poona municipality as commissioner (member of the municipal council) and served in this unelected position until 1883.
- His Satyashodhak Mandal organization attracted people from all castes, faiths, and occupations, including Brahmin, Muslims, lawyers, traders, peasants, landlords, farm workers, Rajputs, untouchables, and government officials.
- Phule believed that through collective action and organized movement, the Samaj could uplift oppressed communities, and the first step to do so was to educate low caste people about the Brahmans' misdeeds.
- From 1877 to 1897, the Samaj published the Deenabandhu newspaper in order to spread their ideas more effectively.