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Funaria gametophyte is
A.Dioecious and autoecious
B.Monoecious and autoecious
C.Dioecious and heteroecious
D.Monoecious and heteroecious

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Funaria is a common land moss which grows in moist shady places. It has about 117 species. But Funaria hygrometrica is most common. The plant body mainly of Stem ,leaf and root like structure called rhizoids.

Complete answer:
1.Adult gametophyte of funaria consists of a delicate, upright stem like central axis on which leaf-like laterals are arranged spirally.
2.Central axis can be called 'stem' and laterals as 'leaves'. More appropriately, 'stem' should be called 'cauloid' and the 'leaf' as 'phylloid'.
3.Rhizoids are attached to the base. The young rhizoids are colourless and the mature ones on exposure to light become green.
4.The branching can be seen at the time of reproduction which is extra-axillary and monopodial. Female branch arises from below the male branch and is longer.
5.Sexual reproduction: Sex organs are antheridia produced on male branch and the archegonia on female branch.

They are projecting type and protandrous.
 Funaria gametophyte is monoecious but autoecious (= pluricarpus), which means Male and female sex organs are found on the same plant but on different branches.
Male Branch (= Antheridiophore): In a L.S. of antheridial heads, a cluster of orange coloured antheridia are surrounded by perigonial leaves. Among the antheridia, many green hair like structures are present called paraphyses. Each paraphysis is 4-5 celled and it is knobbed.
The mature antheridium is elongated and club-shaped with a multicellular stalk. It contains a mass of androcytes. Each androcyte forms two biflagellate antherozoids.
Female Branch (= Archegoniophore ): L.S. of archegonial head shows cluster of archegonia mingled with simple paraphyses without a terminal knob. Each archegonium has 9-10 or more neck canal cells. Venter has a single egg or oosphere and a single venter canal cell.

Hence the correct answer is OPTION(B)

Note: In Funaria, for fertilization water is essential. Biflagellate sperms show chemotactic movement due to the presence of cane sugar (sucrose) in archegonial neck at the time of fertilization. Splash of raindrops helps in sperm movement. It may also be assisted by trickling water or by mites. As a result of fusion of male and female gametes, a diploid zygote or cospore is formed. More than one archegonium may be fertilized but normally one zygote develops into a sporophyte.