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Elbow joint is an example of __________ type of joint.
a. Ball and socket
b. Gliding
c. Hinge
d. Pivot

Last updated date: 25th Jun 2024
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Hint: The elbow may be a complex joint formed between the distal end of the humerus within the upper arm and therefore the proximal ends of the ulna and radius within the forearm. The elbow allows for the flexion and extension of the forearm relative to the upper arm, likewise as rotation of the forearm and wrist.

 Complete answer:
In order to answer this question we need to go through the structure of the elbow in detail.
The elbow is the joint connecting the upper arm to the forearm. It’s classed as a hinge-type diarthrosis. The rounded distal end of the humerus is split into two joint processes — the trochlea on the medial side and also the capitulum on the lateral side. The pulley-shaped trochlea forms a good joint with the trochlear notch of the ulna surrounding it. On the lateral side, the concave end of the pinnacle of the radius meets the rounded, convex capitulum to complete the hinge joint. The loose union of the capitulum of the humerus and also the head of the radius allows the radius to pivot similarly as flex and extend. The pivoting of the radius allows for the supination and pronation of the hand at the wrist.
Structures of the hinge joint:
Articulating Surfaces: It consists of two separate articulations:
> Trochlear notch of the ulna and also the trochlea of the humerus
> Head of the radius and also the capitulum of the humerus
Like all synovial joints, the cubitus incorporates a capsule enclosing the joint. This in itself is powerful and fibrous, strengthening the joint. The joint capsule is thickened medially and laterally to create collateral ligaments, which stabilise the flexing and lengthening motion of the arm. A bursa may be a membranous sac stuffed with synovia. It acts as a cushion to scale back friction between the moving parts of a joint, limiting degenerative damage.
There are many bursae within the elbow, but only some have clinical importance
> Intratendinous – located within the tendon of the triceps.
> Subtendinous – between the olecranon and also the tendon of the triceps, reducing friction between the 2 structures during extension and flexion of the arm.
> Subcutaneous (olecranon) bursa – between the olecranon and also the overlying animal tissue (implicated in olecranon bursitis). Ligaments The joint capsule of the elbow is strengthened by ligaments medially and laterally. The radial collateral ligament is found on the lateral side of the joint, extending from the epicondyle, and blending with the annular ligament of the radius (a ligament from the proximal radioulnar joint). The ulnar collateral ligament originates from the medial epicondyle, and attaches to the outgrowth and olecranon of the ulna.
Neurovasculature: The arterial supply to the cubital joint is from the cubital anastomosis, which incorporates recurrent and collateral branches from the brachial and deep brachial arteries. Its nerve supply is provided by the median, musculocutaneous and radial nerves anteriorly, and also the nervus ulnaris posteriorly.
Movements of the joint: The orientation of the bones forming the ginglymoid joint produces a hinge type articulation, which allows for extension and flexion of the forearm:
Extension – musculus triceps brachii and anconeus
Flexion – brachialis, biceps humeri, brachioradialis Being a hinge joint, the sole movements allowed by the elbow are flexion and extension of the joint and rotation of the radius. The range of motion of the elbow is prescribed by the olecranon of the ulna, so the elbow can only touch around 180 degrees. Flexion of the elbow is prescribed only by the compression soft tissues surrounding the joint.

Therefore, the correct answer is c, hinge.

Note: Because such a large amount of muscles originate or insert near the elbow, it's a standard site for injury. One common injury is lateral humeral epicondylitis, also called tendinitis, which is an inflammation surrounding the epicondyle of the humerus. Six muscles that control backward movement (extension) of the hand and fingers originate on the epicondyle. Repeated strenuous striking while the muscles are contracted and against force — like that occurring with the backhand shot in tennis — causes strain on the tendinous muscle attachments and might produce pain round the epicondyle. Rest for these muscles will usually evoke recovery.