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Draw the atomic structure of sodium atom and sodium-ion.

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Last updated date: 25th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The atomic structure consists of proton, electron and neutron. The protons and neutrons are placed in the nucleus and electrons are placed in different orbits around the nucleus. An ion is an electron rich or electron deficient species of the corresponding atom.

Complete step by step answer:
Sodium is an atom in the periodic table with atomic number \[11\] and mass number\[23\]. The electronic configuration of sodium is:
$Na:1{s^2}2{s^2}2{p^6}3{s^1}$
The valence shell of the sodium atom is \[3\]. It has a total of \[11\] protons and \[11\] electrons. The number of neutrons = \[23 - 11 = 12\]. The \[11\] protons and \[12\] neutrons are placed in the nucleus of the sodium atom. The \[11\] electrons are placed in different shells of sodium atoms.
The shells around the nucleus of an atom are labelled as \[K\] , \[L\] , \[M\] , \[N\] and so on. The first shell \[K = 1\] has two electrons, the second shell \[K = 2\] has eight electrons and the third shell \[M = 3\] has one electron.
Thus the atomic structure of sodium atom is shown in figure \[1\] .

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Figure\[1\] : Atomic structure of sodium atom.
Sodium-ion is a cationic species. It is formed by the removal of an electron from the sodium atom. The total number of electrons in sodium ions is \[10\] . The electronic configuration of sodium ion is:
$N{a^ + }:1{s^2}2{s^2}2{p^6}$
In sodium ion the single electron is removed from the third shell and so in sodium-ion the valence shell is \[2\] i.e. second shell or \[L\] shell. Thus the atomic structure of sodium-ion is shown in figure \[2\] .

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Figure\[2\] : Atomic structure of sodium-ion.

Note: The number of electrons in sodium atom and sodium ion is \[11\] and \[10\] respectively. The number of protons and neutrons are the same. As the number of protons is more than the number of electrons by one so one unit charge is placed over\[Na\].