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(a) Saturated hydrocarbon
(b) Unsaturated hydrocarbon
(c) Catenation

Last updated date: 23rd Apr 2024
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Hint: All the organic compounds possessing carbon as well as hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons. These are naturally-occurring compounds and they generally form the basis of natural gas, crude oil, coal, and other energy sources.

Complete step by step answer:
Hydrocarbons are mainly classified as saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
(a) Saturated hydrocarbon: Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest form of hydrocarbons consisting of only single bonded carbon atoms. They are known as saturated owing to the capacity of each carbon atom to form bonds with as many hydrogen atoms as possible. We can say that carbon atoms are saturated with the hydrogen atoms. Example: alkanes like methane, ethane, propane, etc.
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(b) Unsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons belong to the class of hydrocarbons which possess either double or triple covalent bonds between the adjacent carbon atoms. The term "unsaturated" indicates that more hydrogen atoms can be appended into the hydrocarbon in order to make it saturated. Generally, an unsaturated hydrocarbon includes straight chains (alkenes and alkynes) and also branched chains or aromatic compounds. Examples: propene, propyne, cis-2-butene, cyclopentene etc.

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(c) Catenation: Catenation refers to the process in which an element binds to itself via covalent bonds which leads to the formation of either chain or ring molecules. Carbon is the most common example of an element which exhibits catenation. Carbon can lead to the formation of long hydrocarbon chains as well as rings like benzene.

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Note: If hydrocarbons enter the lungs, it usually causes pneumonia and even death. Some hydrocarbons can also cause coma, irregular heart rhythms, seizures, or damage to the liver or kidneys.
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