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$\text{ }{{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{6}}}\text{ }$ is a very good industrial solvent for:
A) $\text{ NaCl }$
B) $\text{ MgC}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}\text{ }$
C) $\text{ CaC}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}\text{ }$
D) Fats


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Last updated date: 23rd Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: we know that “Like dissolve like”. The polar substance dissolves in the polar solvent. If the substance is nonpolar it easily dissolves in the non-polar solvent. Hydrocarbon compounds made of $\text{ C}-\text{C }$ and $\text{ C}-\text{H }$ bond. The compound has a very small dipole moment .If a molecule has a symmetry it has an equal dipole moment in the opposite direction which cancels out the dipole moment. Benzene is a nonpolar solvent thus dissolves the nonpolar substance.

Complete step by step solution:
The solvent is expressed by the rule which states that “Like dissolves like ''. That means if a substance is polar or ionic substances readily dissolve in the polar solvent. For example salt in water .However, non-polar solvent readily dissolves the non-polar substances in it. The polar substance cannot be dissolved in a nonpolar solvent and vice versa.
Benzene contains six members' unsaturated rings.it is general formula is $\text{ }{{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{6}}}\text{ }$. Benzene is a hydrocarbon and contains the $\text{ C}-\text{C }$ and $\text{ C}-\text{H }$ bonds. It generally exists in the liquid state and is utilized as the solvent in various industrial applications.
Benzene is nonpolar because the carbon C is slightly electronegative than the H (dipole moment is $\text{ 0}\text{.35 }$ ) so $\text{ C}-\text{H }$ the bond is very slightly polar. However, the benzene has six such bonds which are directed in the opposite direction. Thus benzene has a zero dipole moment.
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Benzene is considered a good solvent for many organic compounds. A good solvent is a solvent that is nontoxic, non –flammable and resistant to radiation, inert towards the nitric acid can be easily distilled and easy and cheap and easy to obtain.
Fat is also known as the fatty acid or the lipids. Thus are made of the three molecules. Thus these are also known as the triglyceride. The fats are a long carbon chain. Here the charges are evenly distributed thus fat molecules do not have a positive or negative charge on them. It is a nonpolar molecule.
Since we know that like dissolves like. Thus benzene readily dissolves fat molecules in it. While,$\text{ NaCl }$, $\text{ MgC}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}\text{ }$ and $\text{ CaC}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}\text{ }$ are ionic compounds they have a non-zero dipole moment. Thus do not dissolve in the benzene$\text{ }{{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{6}}}\text{ }$.
Thus, $\text{ }{{\text{C}}_{\text{6}}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{6}}}\text{ }$ is a very good industrial solvent for fats.

Hence, (D) is the correct option.

Note: Note that hydrocarbons (a compound made of carbon and hydrogen) and which exist in liquid state are used as the non-polar solvents. Some of the examples are toluene, diethyl ether, carbon tetrachloride. This has zero dipole moment. Benzene is used in various industries like resin, polymer, etc. as the solvent.
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