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Assertion: Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., and Salmonella sp. are all responsible for diarrhoeal diseases.
Reason: Dehydration is common to all types of diarrhoeal diseases and an adequate supply of fluids and electrolytes should be ensured.
(a) Both assertion and reason are correct and the reason is the correct explanation for the assertion.
(b) Both assertion and reason are correct but the reason is not the correct explanation for the assertion.
(c) Assertion is correct but the reason is incorrect
(d) Both assertion and reason are incorrect

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Last updated date: 25th Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: It is defined as an increase in the number of stools, an increase in the fluidity of the stool, and/or the presence of blood and mucus with increased neutrophil polymorphs in the stool. It is a symbol of the secretory response of the gastrointestinal mucosa to a good sort of stimuli. When the secretion increases the water content and fluidity of the stool.

Complete answer:
A few kinds of microscopic organisms can enter your body through polluted food or water and cause the runs. Normal microbes that cause the runs to incorporate Campylobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, and Shigella. Hence, Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., and Salmonella sp. are all responsible for diarrhoeal diseases.
Dehydration happens when your body loses more liquid than you drink. The most widely recognized reason for water misfortune from the body is inordinate perspiring and loss of liquids. Henceforth, Dehydration is regular to all or such diarrhoeal illnesses, and a satisfactory flexibility of liquids and electrolytes ought to be guaranteed.

Additional information: Diarrhea is the passage of loose or watery stools occurring three or more times during a 24-hour period.
The three sorts of diarrhea are acute diarrhea, persistent diarrhea, and dysentery.
If an episode of diarrhea lasts but 14 days, it's acute diarrhea. The acute watery diarrhea causes dehydration and adds to malnutrition. The death of a toddler with acute diarrhea is typically thanks to dehydration.
If diarrhea lasts 14 days or more, it is persistent diarrhea. Up to twenty episodes of diarrhea become persistent. Persistent diarrhea often causes nutritional problems, creating the danger of malnutrition and high non- intestinal infection. Dehydration also occurs.
Diarrhea with blood within the stool – with or without mucus – is named dysentery. Diarrhea is exceptionally hazardous due to its capacity to prompt anorexia, fast weight reduction, and harm to the intestinal mucosa. Another danger is sepsis.
So the correct answer is ‘(b) Both assertion and reason are correct but the reason is not the correct explanation for the assertion’.

Note: Diarrhea can be prevented by pursuing multisectoral efforts by:
- improving access to clean water and safe sanitation
- promoting hygiene education
- exclusive breast-feeding
- improved weaning practices
- immunizing all children; especially against measles
- using latrines
- keeping food and water clean