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Last updated date: 06th Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

What are typical and non-typical transition elements?

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Hint: In chemistry, the s, p, d and f block elements make up the periodic table. Transition elements are those that are made up of d block elements. The elements of group \[3 - 12\] are found in the d block elements of the periodic table, where the d orbitals are gradually filled in each of the four long periods. Metals are in the s block, nonmetals are in the p block, but metals, nonmetals, and metalloids are in the d block.

Complete answer:
Transition elements have partially filled d orbitals, such as Fe, CO, Ti, and non-typical transition elements have fully filled d orbitals, such as Zn, Cd, and Hg, since their inner or penultimate d-orbitals are completely filled.
They both have d orbitals, but with minor differences that enable them to easily distinguish themselves from transitional elements. The elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, and Cl are known as typical elements because they sum up the properties of their respective groups.
Metals are the transition elements. They are solid and heavy, with high melting points and densities. They act as catalysts and form coloured compounds. Transition elements are those that have partly filled (\[n - 1\]) d orbitals as elements or ions. These are known as d-block elements because the differentiating electrons join the (\[n - 1\])d orbitals.
Since these elements are sandwiched between electropositive metals (s-block elements) and electronegative non-metals, they are referred to as transition elements (p-block elements). - Alkali and alkaline earth metals are more reactive than transition elements.

Transition elements have a low reactivity due to their high ionisation energy. - Except for the last member of each series, all transition elements have variable oxidation states since their valence electrons are present in ns and (\[n - 1\])d orbitals. - In their solid or solution states, most transition metals are colourless.