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What are s, p, d and f block elements?

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Elements in the periodic table have been divided into 4 blocks: s, p, d and f. This division depends on the name of the orbitals which gets the last electron.

Complete step by step answer:
S block elements:
Elements in which the last electron comes into the s-orbital of the outermost energy level are known as s-block elements. The s-block comprises 2 groups—Group 1 & Group 2, which usually are alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. There can be max two electrons in the valence shell as s-orbital is only able to have 2 electrons in it.

P block elements:
Elements in which the last electron comes into the p-orbital of their outermost energy level are known as p-block elements. The p-block elements consist of elements belonging to Groups 13 to 18. It generally consists of every type of element which are metals, nonmetals and metalloids. There can be max six electrons in the p orbital and two electrons in the s orbital. Therefore according to the electronic configurations, there can be only 3-8 electrons in the outer shell of these elements.

D block elements:
Elements in which the last electron comes into any of the 5 d-orbitals of penultimate shells are known as
d-block elements. Elements of Groups 3 to 12 usually in the center of the periodic table constitute the d-block elements. The outer electronic configuration of d-block elements is given as (n − 1)d1−10 ns1−2. d and s orbitals are able to hold max of 10 and 2 electrons respectively. Hence, the number of valence electrons in these elements ranges from 3 to 12.

F block elements:
Elements in which the last electron comes into any of the 7 f-orbitals of their respective ante-penultimate shells are known as f-block elements. They are also known as inner transition elements. There are 28 elements of f-block in the periodic table which are usually placed at the bottom of the periodic table. All the f-block elements, which are lanthanides and actinides, are also known as inner transition elements. The outer electronic configuration of Actinides is given as 5f1-14 6d0-1 7s2.

Note:
Remember to read and understand the periodic table as it is very important for knowing about the block elements as well as for a lot many things.