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What are different types of RNA found in the cell?

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Last updated date: 26th Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: RNA or ribonucleic acid is a single-stranded biological macromolecule that plays an important role in protein synthesis. It is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell.

Complete answer:
RNA is almost like DNA except it is single-stranded and it contains ribose sugar in it. Many types of RNA are known out of which there are three well-known RNA i.e. mRNA, rRNA, tRNA. These are broadly divided into two categories i.e. coding and non-coding RNA. The m-RNA is the only coding RNA while all other types of RNA are non-coding RNA.

Messenger RNA: The mRNA (messenger RNA) carries the genetic codes from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis. Therefore m-RNA is also called the transcripts.

Ribosomal RNA: In all living beings the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is an important part of an organelle called ribosomes which are responsible for protein synthesis. They are the most commonly found RNA in the cells.

Transfer RNA: t-RNA is also known as adaptor molecules or soluble RNA. It is responsible for decoding the m- RNA and brings the appropriate amino acids to the ribosome corresponding to the m-RNA during the protein synthesis.

Note: Messenger RNA (mRNA) can travel from nucleus to cytoplasm during protein synthesis while other types of RNA are i.e. tRNA and rRNA is present in the cytoplasm only. There are other types of non-coding RNA also present in the cells these are Small nuclear RNAs (snRNA), Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA), MicroRNAs (miRNA), etc.