How are cathode rays produced? Briefly explain their important properties.
Hint :When cathode rays strike glass or some other materials, they produce green fluorescence. They are deflected from their straight path towards the positive plate of the electric field, whenever an electric field or magnetic field is applied on the cathode rays. This proves that cathode rays are negatively charged particles.
Complete Step By Step Answer: Cathode rays come out from the cathode as the cathode is charged negatively. So, these rays strike and ionize the gas sample present inside the container. The electrons which are ejected from gas ionization travel towards the anode. These rays are electrons which are produced from the gas ionization inside the tube. Important properties of cathode rays: Property 1: Cathode rays travel in a straight line and they can cast sharp shadows. Property 2: They are negatively charged. Property 3: Electric and magnetic fields deflect cathode rays. Property 4: They are produced at the cathode and travel to the anode in a vacuum tube. Property 5: Their properties do not depend on the electrodes and the gas used in the vacuum tube. Property 6: The speed of cathode rays is slower than that of light. Property 7: The objects which are hit by cathode rays get heated. Property 8: Cathode rays are capable of penetrating through thin metal plates. Property 9: Phosphors generally glow when cathode rays fall on them. Property 10: Gas gets ionized by these rays. Property 11: Cathode rays are $ 180 $ times lighter than hydrogen.
Note : Cathode rays are also known as electron beams or an e-beam. These are streams of electrons observed in the vacuum tubes. The images in television are created by a focused beam of electrons deflected by electric or magnetic fields in cathode ray tubes.