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How is a neuron adapted to perform its function?

Last updated date: 21st Jul 2024
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Hint: Neurons are structural and functional units of the nervous system. Neurons transmit information throughout the body. They are the longest cell in the human body.

Complete answer:
Neurons are units of the nervous system which carry information throughout the body using chemical and electrical signals. They receive and transmit signals. Neurons help in coordination. Neurons are the cells that make up the brain and the nervous system. There are three basic types of neurons based on function- sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.

Every neuron has three distinctive parts. They are dendrites, cyton and axon.

1)Dendrites are thin long projections of neurons (nerve cells) that receive signals from other neurons. Their structure resembles a tree-like branch system, forming projections that become stimulated by other neurons and conduct the impulses to the cell body.

2)Cyton is the central or cell body of a neuron. It contains cytoplasm and the nucleus. The cytoplasm of cyton shows characteristic Nissl's granules. Cyton receives electrical impulses from other neurons through dendrites.

3)Axon is also called nerve fibre. It is the portion of a nerve cell (neuron) that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body. The axon endings connect with other neurons or with muscle or gland cells.

4)The nerves cells are rather long which enables communication with distant body parts. The dendrites have a high surface area which allows for communication with other neurons. Myelin sheath surrounding the axon of a neuron acts as an insulator.

Note: They are the fundamental units that send and receive signals which allow us to move our muscles, feel the external world, think, and perform various activities. There are almost 100 billion neurons in the human body.