Over the decades, science has changed the way humans live and think. It is progressing in a faster phase. From health to space, science has put its mark strongly. There are many science experts in India and international who are worth being acknowledged for their contribution to our changing lives. One such is the great Indian physicist Sir C.V Raman who discovered Raman Effect, and to commemorate this discovery National Science day is celebrated on February 28. It is one of the important days in India for scientists and physicists.
In many schools and colleges throughout India, National Science is celebrated with different themes every year and is one of the important days related to science. It is one of the important science days of the year. As a part of the science calendar 2022, on February 28, 2022, the theme was ‘Integrated Approach in Science and Technology for Sustainable Future’.
In the year 1986, The National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) requested the then government to mark February 28, as National Science Day. February 28, 1987, marked the first anniversary of the holiday. Scientist Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman discovered The Raman Effect. Moreover, for the research on "The scattering of light and the discovery of the Raman effect," Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1930.
In 1928, Raman and his student associate K.S. Krishnan achieved the discovery. Raman's Nobel Prize, however, was awarded two years later. It was an Indian scientist who received the first Nobel Prize in Physics as a non-white person.
Being one of the important days in India, International Science Day is celebrated to mark the success of The Raman Effect. But what exactly it is? When C.V. Raman visited Europe in 1921, he was struck watching the blue hues of the Mediterranean Seas and some icebergs. This occurrence motivated him to seek out the cause of the occurrence.
He performed tests using translucent ice blocks and mercury arc lamp lights. He observed what would later be referred to as the Raman Lines, which are created by the Raman Effect, and recorded the spectra after shining the light through the ice.
As the light penetrates the medium, its wavelength changes, causing it to scatter. This scattering of light by a medium's molecule by light particles is known as the Raman Effect.
The energy of the photons that make up light is inversely correlated with their frequency of light. High-speed particles that impact molecules in a medium bounce back and disperse in various directions depending on the angle of impact.
The majority of these scatterings are elastic, meaning that the photons keep their energy and deflect at the same speed as before.
However, occasionally photons that strike the molecules of the material that light travels through are either absorbed or given energy. The energy and consequent frequency of the light particles' bounces then change. Wavelength shifts along with frequency.
This represents that the light may appear in a different colour when it is refracted by a body, such as the Mediterranean Sea or an iceberg.
Even though the effect is extremely small and only ever manifests itself in very small quantities, every medium has a unique molecular scattering signature that is dependent on the individual molecule and the quantity of molecules present.
This effect also gave birth to Raman Spectroscopy having extensive applications globally. This Spectroscopy can be used to identify pharmaceutical substances, find counterfeit pharmaceuticals, characterize materials, determine crystalline orientation, identify pigments in old paintings and historical records, and detect explosives using lasers from a distance.
This year, the theme of National Science Day was The Integrated Approach in S&T for Sustainable Future. The four steps of integration would include:
Integration of all scientific divisions capable of working in a theme-based manner;
Expanded scientific integration including institutions in engineering, medicine, and other fields;
Identification of the demands of other ministries, such as railroads and Jal Shakti, through more scientific integration
A comprehensive, science-driven approach that integrates startups and industry
Besides India celebrating National Science Day, other countries in the world also celebrate International Science Day or World Science Day. World Science Day is observed annually on November 10. It was founded as a method to engage everyone in contemporary scientific issues and breakthroughs, such as artificial intelligence or renewable energy, by opening up the realm of scientific study and discovery. The purpose of World Science Day is to demonstrate that science is a part of everyone's life, even if you are not a scientist or researcher. World Science Day is one of the ways to present that science is important in our lives and make it more approachable. Moreover, it is one of the most important science days of the year.
Some Themes Used over the years for National Science Day:
1999: Our Changing Earth
2000: Recreating Interest in Basic Science
2001: Information Technology for Science Education
2002: Wealth From Waste
2003: 25 years of IVF and 50 years of DNA
2004: Encouraging Scientific Awareness in the Community
2005: Celebrating Physics
2006: Nurture Nature for our future
2007: More Crop Per Drop
2008: Understanding the Planet Earth
2009: Expanding Horizons of Science
On the occasion of National Science Day, along with the National Science Popularization awards, there are other awards given on National Science Day. Some of them are as follows:
National S&T Communication Awards
Augmenting Writing Skills for Articulating Research (AWSAR) awards,
SERB Women Excellence Awards
Rajendra Prabhu Memorial Appreciation Shiel
The National Science Day is not limited to celebrating the discovery by an Indian physicist, but also about encouraging new-age science aspirants. There are many important science days in the year, but the aim is to bring out something and try to change the lives of people.