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Life Processes

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Six Stages of Life Processes in Humans and Plants

Based on some particular features and approaches, the presence of life on earth is viable. The renovation functions of living organisms must constantly keep on. because those maintenance techniques are needed to save you harm and destroy-down, energy is wanted for them. This energy comes from outside the body of the individual organism. So there ought to be a procedure to transfer a source of power from outside the body of the organism which we call food, to the inner, a process we commonly name nutrition.

The presence of life on the planet earth is mostly based on specific functions and processes. There are several basic vital processes that are important for an organism to remain healthy and to maintain the proper functioning of the body organ system, which all are essential for survival. These basic important activities achieved by an organism are called life processes. Altogether there are Six Life Processes that calculate the condition of life. Significant life processes are nutrition, transportation, metabolism, respiration, reproduction, and excretion.

  1. Nutrition

  2. Metabolism

  3. Respiration

  4. Transportation

  5. Reproduction

  6. Metabolism

Nutrition in Plant 

The carbon and power necessities of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled with the aid of photosynthesis. It is the method through which autotrophs soak up substances from the outside and convert them into stored forms of power. This material is taken in the form of carbon dioxide and water that's converted into carbohydrates in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. Carbohydrates are utilized for presenting strength to the plant. The carbohydrates which are not used without delay are stored in the form of starch, which serves because the internal electricity reserves for use as and while required via the plant. 

Photosynthesis in Autotrophs/Plants

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The above equation shows the chemical reactions that happen during Photosynthesis.

Chlorophyll is existing in structures called chloroplasts. These organelles are disc-shaped ones that are present in the mesophyll cells of the leaves. These help to take in the sunlight within the plant. As the carbon dioxide CO2 enters the plant through the stoma, the light energy transforms into chemical energy, by the division of the water molecules (H2O) of the Plants. Simple carbohydrates are formed in this process. (O2) Oxygen is a byproduct of the Photosynthesis process.

Nutrition in Animals

Naturally, the meals must be processed to generate particles that are small. that is accomplished while we weigh down the meals with our teeth. A fluid called saliva is secreted by way of the salivary glands. Every other aspect of the meals we ingest is its complex nature. The saliva incorporates an enzyme called salivary amylase that breaks down starch that is a complex molecule to provide simple's far more important to move the meals in a regulated way alongside the digestive tube in order that it can be processed well in each component. From the mouth, the food is taken to the stomach via the food pipe. The muscular walls of the belly assist in blending the food thoroughly with greater digestive juices. The digestion in the stomach is looked after via the gastric glands present inside the wall of the belly.

Nutrition in Humans:

Human Digestive System:

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One vital aspect of Nutrition in Human is the digestion of food. Digestion is the procedure where complex food substances are broken down or transformed into simpler food molecules. It happens through a proper set of organs and secretions from other related organs. Digestion is a vital process, as we Humans cannot take in the complex food particles directly.

The food that we eat gives us the energy to do work and also supports cell growth and cell repair. (We know that our body is made up of several cells and tissues) then it is the all-important blood that completes this function.

Transportation In Plants

Movement of Water in Plants

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  • Water travels into the root from the soil and then slowly it moves into the root xylem, making a column of water, which is gradually pushed upwards.
  • Vaporization of water molecules from the cells of a leaf generates a suction process, which pulls water from the xylem cells of roots; this route keeps going on.

  • The loss of water H2O in the form of vapor from the leaves of the plant is called transpiration.

  • Transpiration, likewise, assist in the absorption and upward movement of minerals and water dissolved in it from roots to the leaves.

  • Transpiration also helps in temperature regulation.

  • The transportation of soluble products of photosynthesis is called translocation, which happens in the part of the vascular tissue called phloem.

  • Along with photosynthesis products, the phloem also transports amino acids and other materials, which are eventually delivered to roots, fruits, seeds, and growing organs.

Oxygen Transportation in Humans

The coronary heart is a muscular organ whose length is just like our fist. Because each oxygen and carbon dioxide should be transported through the blood, the heart has different chambers to prevent the oxygen-wealthy blood from mixing with the blood containing carbon dioxide. The Carbon dioxide-wealthy blood has to reach the lungs for the carbon dioxide to be removed, and the oxygenated blood from the lungs has to be brought again to the coronary heart. This oxygen-wealthy blood is then pumped to the relaxation of the frame. Blood from the lungs goes to the thin-walled high chamber of the heart on the left, the left atrium. The left atrium relaxes while it is amassing this blood. It then contracts, at the same time as the subsequent chamber, the left ventricle relaxes so that the blood is transferred to it. whilst the muscular left ventricle contracts in its turn, the blood is pumped out to the frame. Deoxygenated blood comes from the frame to the top chamber at the right, the right atrium, as it relaxes. It circulates blood toward the right side ventricle, which in turn pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation. When you consider that ventricles must pump blood into various organs, they have got thicker muscular partitions than the atria do. Valves make sure that blood does no longer glide backward when the atria or ventricles agree.

Circulatory System


Blood is a vital fluid connective tissue. It is mostly composed of plasma and blood cells. There are three types of blood cells, known, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and blood platelets. The red blood cells RBCs have hemoglobin, an iron-containing complex protein. The WBC white blood cells are the cells that aid in fighting diseases and attack any foreign bodies in the blood. The blood platelets are the ones that support in the clotting of blood.


The human heart is a fully muscular organ, which has four chambers or sections. The two upper chambers or sections are known as the right atrium and the left atrium, and the two lower chambers or sections are known as the right ventricle and left ventricle. The right atrium and the right ventricle together can be called the right heart. The left atrium with the left ventricle together may be called the left heart. All the chambers or sections of the heart are divided by muscular walls called the septum.

Blood Vessels

Veins transport deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart whereas arteries transport oxygenated blood away from the heart to the different areas of the body.

Lymphatic System

It plays an important role in the exchange process of nutrients and gases that happens through blood. Any excess fluid left behind in the cells and tissues is collected by the lymph and is drained into the veins, which carry blood.

Metabolism in Plants

The complex of physical and chemical processes is essential to create and transform substances into energy that is available for use by a plant organism. Plant metabolism is determined by the autotrophic nature of Plants, the importance that they must obtain carbon and other minerals to meet their supplies for the growth and development of Plants. The available resources to Plants are simple, in the custom of inorganic nutrients, light, water(H2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2), but there are also often in a limited source. Plant metabolism displays flexibility that is not observed in other higher organisms. This shows the sessile nature of Plants and their incapability to escape specific environmental situations, stresses, or predation. For cell maintenance and growth, the plant needs a range of organic compounds, containing nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other natural products. Although certain of these compounds are produced by metabolic pathways that are simple to a breadth of organisms, much of plant metabolism is exclusive.

Metabolism in Humans

Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are the main constituents of foods and serve as fuel molecules for the human body. The digestion (breaking down into minor pieces) of these nutrients present in the alimentary tract and the ensuing absorption (entry into the bloodstream) of the digestive end products make it potential for tissues and cells to convert into the potential chemical energy of food into useful work.

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The key absorbed end products of food digestion are monosaccharides, mainly glucose; monoacylglycerol and long-chain fatty acids (from lipids); and minor peptides and amino acids (from protein). Once they are in the bloodstream, different cells can absorb these nutrients. We have long known that these three classes of molecules are fuel sources for human metabolism, yet it is a simple misconception that human cells use only glucose as a foundation of energy. This misinformation can arise from the way most textbooks clarify energy metabolism, emphasizing glycolysis (the metabolic pathway for glucose dilapidation) and neglecting fatty acid or amino acid oxidation.

Respiration in Plants

Respiration in Leaves

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The leaves of Plants have minute pores on their surface which are called stomata. The exchange of gases in the leaves throughout respiration takes place with the help of stomata.

This Occurs as Follows: Oxygen from the air arrives into a leaf through stomata and reaches all the cells by the method of diffusion. This oxygen in a leaf is used for respiration in cells. The carbon dioxide formed is diffused out from the leaf into the air through the same stomata.

Respiration in Roots

The roots of a plant take up air from the spaces amid the soil particles.  Root hairs are in constant touch with the air present in the soil particles. Oxygen from the air in soil particles diffuse into root hair and spread all the cells of the root where it is utilized in respiration. Carbon dioxide made in the cells of the root during respiration goes out through the same root hair by the method of diffusion.

Transportation Nitrogen in Plants

The soil is the closest and richest supply of nitrogen, phosphorus, and different minerals. The absorption of those materials consequently happens through the element in touch with the soil, namely roots. If the distances among soil-contacting organs and chlorophyll-

Contain organs are small, strong, and uncooked substances that can diffuse without problems to all components of the plant body. However, if these distances come to be big due to modifications in plant frame design, diffusion procedures will now not be enough.

Delivery of Water in Flowers

In xylem tissue, vessels and tracheids of the roots, stems, and leaves are interconnected to form a non-stop system of water-engaging in channels reaching all components of the plant. at the roots, cells in touch with the soil actively take in ions. This creates a difference in the attention of these ions among the root and the soil. Water, therefore, movements into the root from the soil to take away this distinction. which means there may be consistent movement of water into the root xylem, creating a column of water that is progressively pushed upwards.

Respiratory in Human

The food material taken in the course of the procedure of nutrition is used in cells to provide energy for various lifestyle strategies. Some organisms use oxygen to break down glucose absolutely into carbon dioxide and water, some use different pathways that do not involve oxygen. In all instances, step one is the wreck-down of glucose, a six-carbon molecule, into a 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. This technique takes the region inside the cytoplasm. In addition, pyruvate may be converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. This method takes the region in yeast in the course of fermentation. Because this procedure takes place in the absence of air (oxygen), it's referred to as anaerobic breathing. 

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From the above figure, it is now assumed that in Humans, aerobic Respiration takes place. But, remember that in a crisis situation, anaerobic Respiration can also take in some muscle cells, to continue the life processes. The human respiratory system contains mainly of a pair of lungs, trachea, bronchi, and alveoli. Air enters the body from the nostrils. They travel through an air passage known as the nasal passage. From here, it enters into the pharynx and larynx. The larynx is known as the voice box. From the larynx, the air then passes to the trachea, from where it enters the lungs. The trachea has rings of cartilage that prevent the failure of the trachea when the air is not present.

Reproduction in Plants

Asexual Reproduction in Plants: When a vegetative piece of the original plant such as root, stem, or leaf is tangled in producing an offspring, it is known as ‘Vegetative Reproduction in Plants.’ It is often called a process of ‘Survival’ and expansion of Biomass.

The various kinds of Asexual Vegetative Reproduction in Plants are

Budding: The type of asexual reproduction where a new organism develops from a bud or outgrowth due to cell division at one specific site is called Budding.

Fragmentation: Fragmentation in Plants is a method of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is splitting into fragments. Each of these fragments develops into mature, fully grown characters that are clones of the original organism.

Spore Formation: Reproduction via Spores includes the scattering of the Spores by water or air. Reproductive Spores produce into multi-cellular haploid individuals or sporelings.

Vegetative Propagation: Vegetative Propagation is a type of asexual reproduction in which new Plants are made from roots, stems, leaves, and buds

Sexual Reproduction in Plants

For Sexual Reproduction of Plants, is the interaction between the male and female species is essential. The offspring's genetic structure is not equal but results from the combination of parent Plants.

Reproduction in Human

Reproduction in human beings is by sexual Reproduction where both the male and female gametes fertilize to produce an embryo.

Male Reproductive System:

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The testes are the main organs of male reproduction. They are in charge of producing the male gamete called the sperm by a method called spermatogenesis. This happens in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. The testes are also in charge of secreting the male reproductive hormone known as testosterone. It consists of the testes, sperm duct, prostate gland, urethra, and penis.

Female Reproductive System:

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The female reproductive system in Humans is placed entirely within the pelvic cavity. It contains the following structures: Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix, Vagina, and Urethra. The egg is produced under the impact of both female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. This process is called Oogenesis.

The Process of Fertilisation and Further Development

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The male sperm are put in the female body by the process known as sexual intercourse. Once the gametes are deposited in the vagina, they need to pass upwards to reach the egg that is free from the ovaries and picked up by the fallopian tubes. When the gametes meet the egg, it needs to penetrate through its layers to effect fertilization. Both the Egg and the Sperm fertilize and make the diploid zygote


Elimination of toxic and waste substances from the body is known as excretion.

Excretion in Plant Life

Oxygen itself can be the concept of a waste product generated during photosynthesis. They are able to take away excess water with the aid of transpiration. For other wastes, flowers use the fact that many of their tissues include lifeless cells, and that they are able to even lose some components which include leaves. Many plant waste merchandise is stored in cellular vacuoles. Waste products may be saved in leaves that fall off. Another waste merchandise is saved as resins and gums, in particular in old xylem. flowers also excrete a few waste materials into the soil around them.

There is a huge difference in the structure and arrangement of plants and animals. Photosynthesis takes place in Plants, in the existence of sunlight. This chemical reaction gives growth to oxygen, which is a gas. It diffuses with the help of the stomata or the openings in the leaves. Any extra water that is existing in Plants gets vaporized through the transpiration procedure.

Another stimulating feature here in Plants is that certain of the plant wastes are stored in cellular vacuoles, in leaves that fall off. Certain other waste materials are stored in the xylem, like resins and gums.

Excretion in Human Beings

The excretory machine of human beings consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra. Kidneys are positioned within the abdomen. Urine produced inside the kidneys passes via the ureters into the urinary bladder. The reason for making urine is to clear out waste products from the blood. Simply as CO2 is removed from the blood in the lungs, nitrogenous waste consisting of urea or uric acid is eliminated from the blood within the kidneys. It's no surprise that the fundamental filtration unit in the kidneys, like in the lungs, is a cluster of very skinny-walled blood capillaries. Every kidney has big numbers of these filtration units known as nephrons. Some substances in the preliminary filtrate, which include glucose, amino acids, salts, and a main amount of water, are selectively reabsorbed as the urine flows alongside the tube. The quantity of water reabsorbed relies upon how a good deal of excess water there is within the frame, and on how much dissolved waste there is to be excreted. The urine forming in every kidney, in the end, enters an extended tube, the ureter, which connects the kidneys with the urinary bladder. Urine is saved inside the urinary bladder.

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This is a well-built and complex system that takes care of removing the wastes from the human body. This is an important function that guides the smooth operation of the human body. Kidneys are the key organs of the excretory system in human beings. Ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra along with blood vessels are the other constituents present. The urine that is made in the kidneys is passed through the ureters to the urinary bladder. It is ejected out through the urethra.

But, a point to be remembered is that skin and lungs, also have a part to play in eliminating waste materials from the body. The sweat glands in the skin support the excretion of small volumes of water, salts, and urea. Lungs help in getting free of carbon dioxide through the respiration method.

Last updated date: 28th Sep 2023
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FAQs on Life Processes

1. What are the living processes in plants?

Plantlife processes include - nutrition, transport, digestion, respiration, reproduction, sensitivity, and growth.

2. What 5 life processes are made by plant and animal cells?

Like animals, fungi, and all living things on earth, plants have a variety of life forms that enable them to grow and reproduce. The seven life processes include nourishment, waste disposal, growth, reproduction, sensitivity, respiration, and movement.

3. How do plants and animals perform the functions of life?

However, the cells of plants and animals perform similar functions. Over the passage of time, they separated so that plants and animals can change and grow. Plants and animals are allowed to absorb nutrients and convert those nutrients into energy.

4. What are the different plant health processes that affect plant growth?

Photosynthesis, respiration, and respiration are the three major functions that drive plant growth and development. All three are essential for the plant to survive.

5. What processes do animals need to survive in various environments?

There are seven basic processes that are the same: movement, breathing, sensitivity, growth, reproduction, discharge, and feeding.

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