Endocrine Glands are also known as Endocrine blood Glands. The Hormone produced is released directly into the blood. The main Glands of the Endocrine System are the Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Pancreas, ovaries, testis, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Hypothalamus, and Adrenal Gland. Hypothalamus
The Hypothalamus releases two types of Hormones: Hormone release and suppression. One of the hypothalamic Hormones commonly known as gonadotropin-releasing Hormone stimulates the total synthesis and release of gonadotropin. Other Hormone-like somatostatins released from the Hypothalamus block the release of growth Hormone from the Pituitary Gland. Pituitary Gland
The Pituitary Gland is located in the bone cavity known as the sella turcica and is connected to the Hypothalamus with the help of the stem. It is divided into two parts: the posterior Pituitary Gland and the Posterior Pituitary Gland. The distal end and middle lobe are part of the Anterior Pituitary Gland. The distal part, commonly known as the Anterior Pituitary Gland, produces the growth Hormones prolactin, Thyroid-stimulating Hormone, adrenocorticotropic Hormone, luteinizing Hormone, and follicle-stimulating Hormone. The middle lobe releases only one Hormone known as melanocyte-stimulating Hormone. In humans, the posterior Pituitary Gland is called the posterior Pituitary Gland and releases two Hormones. Oxytocin and vasopressin. Pineal Gland
The Pineal Gland is on the dorsal side of the forebrain. It produces and expands the production of the Hormone melatonin. Melatonin ix up all well for the 24-hour rhythm of our body. It maintains our wakefulness and sleep cycle and body temperature. It is also involved in pigmentation, the menstrual cycle, and the immune system. Thyroid
The Thyroid Gland is made up of two lobes on the sides of the trachea. Both loads are connected by a flap-like connective tissue structure called the isthmus. The Thyroid Gland is composed of follicular tissue and stromal tissue. It releases Hormones such as tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Iodine deficiency leads to hypoThyroidism, commonly known as goiter. When a goiter develops during pregnancy, it can lead to abnormal growth of the baby, which can lead to cretinism, intellectual disability, and abnormal skin. The Thyroid Gland also produces a protein Hormone called Thyroid calcitonin. This helps regulate blood calcium levels in the body. ParaThyroid Gland
The ParaThyroid Gland is behind the Thyroid Gland. Humans have four Thyroid Glands. It produces a peptide Hormone known as ParaThyroid Hormone. And it is regulated by calcium-iron levels. This Hormone is involved in blood calcium levels. The ParaThyroid Glands also increase blood calcium levels and help stimulate the uptake of calcium by the renal tubules. Thymus
The Thymus is between the lungs and behind the sternum. This lobular structure plays an important role in the growth of the immune system. It is rich in a Hormone called thymosin and helps the development of T lymphocytes. You must have noticed that the old man's immune system is weakened. This is due to degeneration of the Thymus and decreased production of thymosin in the elderly. Adrenal Glands
The Adrenal Glands are in the anterior part of the kidney. It is composed of two types of tissue commonly known as the Adrenal medulla and the Adrenal cortex. The Hormones released are known as Adrenaline or epinephrine and norepinephrine or norepinephrine. These two Hormones are also called catecholamines. Adrenaline and norAdrenaline are known as emergency Hormones or flying Hormones. The donor cortex is divided into three layers: the reticular, zona fasciculosa, and zona glomerulosa. The Adrenal cortex releases the Hormone corticoid. Pancreas
The Pancreas of the body works as both exocrine and Endocrine Glands. The Endocrine Pancreas is made by Langerhans in Iceland. The human Pancreas has nearly 122 million islets of Langerhans. The two types of cells found in Iceland are Langerhans cells, known as alpha cells, and beta cells. Alpha cells secrete a hormone known as glucagon, and beta cells secrete insulin. Glucagon is commonly known as a peptide Hormone that helps maintain normal blood sugar levels in the body. Glucagon acts on living cells and causes hyperglycemia called hyperglycemia. Insulin is another peptide hormone that helps lower blood sugar levels, known as hypoglycemia. Insulin also converts glucose to glycogen by a method known as the glycogen synthesis process. When a person loses glucose through urine and accumulates ketone bodies, he or she becomes diabetic. This can be cured with insulin therapy. Testicles
The Testicles are part of the male reproductive system and are found in pairs in the scrotum. It is the main genital organ of men and also functions as an Endocrine Gland. It consists of seminiferous tubules and stromal tissue. This Gland contains Hormones called androgens and testosterone. Androgens help male appendage maturation, facial hair growth, and bass voice. Ovary
The female has a pair of ovaries in the lower abdomen. The ovaries are the female genitals that produce egg cells during each menstrual cycle. The ovaries produce the Hormones estrogen and progesterone. It is composed of follicles and stromal tissue. Estrogen helps the growth and activity of female secondary sexual characteristics, the appearance of female secondary sexual characteristics, and the development of the mammary Glands. Progesterone helps with pregnancy. This Hormone acts on the mammary Gland, causing alveolar formation and lactation.
Endocrine Glands secrete Hormones instead of ducts into the interstitial fluid that surrounds the secretory cells. Hormones spread from the interstitial fluid into blood capillaries, and blood carries them to target cells throughout the body. Because most Hormones are required in very small amounts, typically low circulation levels are found.
The Endocrine Glands also include the Pituitary, Thyroid, ParaThyroid, Adrenal, and Pineal Glands. In addition, many organs and tissues are not exclusively classified as Endocrine Glands but contain cells that secrete Hormones. The Endocrine System consists of all Endocrine Glands and Hormone-secreting cells.
As Endocrine Glands secretions are released directly into the blood, not into tubes or ducts, they are also referred to as Ductless Glands. The major Endocrine Glands include the Hypothalamus, the Pituitary Gland, the Pineal body, Thyroid, ParaThyroid, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, and gonads.
The Hypothalamus is a functionally diverse forebrain region that exerts a deep regulatory influence on survival-critical physiological and behavioral processes. Directionally, the diencephalon contains the Hypothalamus. It is lower than the thalamus, later than the optic chiasm, and the temporal lobes and optic tracts border on the sides. The location of the Hypothalamus, in specific its proximity and interaction with the thalamus and Pituitary Gland, allows it to behave as a bridge between the Nervous and Endocrine Systems.
Autonomic Function Control
Endocrine Function Control
Motor Function Control
Food and Water Intake Regulation
Sleep-Wake Cycle Regulation
Anti-Diuretic Hormone (Vasopressin) – It regulates water levels and influences blood volume and blood pressure.
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone – It acts on the Pituitary Gland causing the release of Hormones in response to stress.
Oxytocin – It influences sexual and social behavior.
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone – It stimulates the Pituitary to release Hormones that influence the development of reproductive System structures.
Somatostatin - It inhibits the release of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Growth Hormone (GH).
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone – It stimulates the release of growth Hormone by the Pituitary.
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone - It stimulates the Pituitarytorelease Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH). The body metabolism, growth, heart rate, and body temperature is majorly regulated by TSH
The Pineal Gland is a small Endocrine Gland that is attached to the midline roof of the brain's third ventricle. Part of the epithalamus is placed between the top two colliculi, has a weight of 0.1–0.2 g, and is covered by a capsule formed by the pia mater.
The Gland consists of masses of Pinealocytes called neuroglia and secretory cells. The Pineal Gland is secreting melatonin, a serotonin-derived amine Hormone. Melatonin seems to help set the biological clock of the body, which is controlled by the Hypothalamus ' suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Secretion of the Hormone melatonin
Regulation of Endocrine functions
Transformation of entire nervous System signals to Endocrine signals
Influences sexual development
Influences immune System function
Several small, round masses of tissue called the ParaThyroid Glands are partially embedded in the back surface of the lateral lobes of the Thyroid Gland. Everyone weighs approximately 40 mg (0.04 g). Usually, each lateral Thyroid lobe is attached to one superior and one inferior ParaThyroid Gland for a total of four. Microscopically, there are two types of epithelial cells in the ParaThyroid Glands. The more numerous cells, known as chief (main) cells, produce ParaThyroid Hormone (PTH), also known as ParatHormone. The other cell type's function called an oxyphil cell, is unknown.
The ParaThyroids release PTH, which regulates how much calcium is in the blood.
TH also indicates that the kidneys and small intestines save calcium from digestion rather than release it into the urine.
The Thymus is between the lungs behind the sternum. Thymosin-produced Hormones— thymosin, thymic humoral factor (THF), thymic factor (TF), and thymopoietin — promote T cell maturation and may delay aging. The Thymus in the upper chest cavity is a two-lobed structure that partially extends into the neck. The Thymus is above the heart's pericardium, the aorta, the lungs, the Thyroid, and the breastbone. The Thymus has a thin outer cover called a capsule and consists of three cell types: epithelial cells, lymphocytes, and cells called Kulchitsky, or neuroEndocrine.
It mainly works for the development of T lymphocytes. These cells, once fully mature, leave the Thymus and are transported to the lymph nodes and spleen via the blood vessels.
Hormone-like proteins that assist in the maturation and differentiation of T cells.
Differentiation in T lymphocytes and enhancement of T-cell function is induced by Thymopoietin and thymulin.
Thymosin significantly increases the immune reaction and induces certain other Hormones of the Pituitary Glands
The paired Adrenal Glands have a flattened pyramidal shape, one of which is superior to each kidney in the retroperitoneal space. In an adult, each Adrenal Gland has a height of 3–5 cm, a width of 2–3 cm, and a thickness of slightly less than 1 cm, with a mass of 3.5–5 g, at birth only half.
Cortical secretions include mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens, Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Secretion is controlled by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) pathway and by the K+ level in the blood.
Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) promote protein breakdown, gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis; help resists stress and serve as anti-inflammatory substances. Their secretion is controlled by ACTH.
Androgens secreted by the Adrenal cortex stimulate the growth of axillary and pubic hair, aid the prepubertal growth spurt, and contribute to libido.
The Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine(NE), which are released during stress and produce effects similar to sympathetic responses.
The Pancreas is a Gland that is both Endocrine and exocrine. A flattened organ measuring approximately 12.5–15 cm (4.5–6 in.) in length, the Pancreas is located in the duodenum curve, the first part of the small intestine, consisting of a head, a body, and a tail. Approximately 99% of the pancreatic cells are arranged in clusters called acini. The acini produce digestive enzymes that flow through a network of ducts into the gastrointestinal tract. One to two million tiny clusters of Endocrine tissue called pancreatic islets of Langerhans islets are scattered among the exocrine acini.
The exocrine and Endocrine portions of the Pancreas are served by a large number of capillaries.
There are four types of Hormone-secreting cells in the Pancreas. Alpha or A cells make up about 17% of pancreatic islet and excrete glucagon cells. Beta or B cells makes up the majority of cells i.e. about 70% of pancreatic islet cells and excrete insulin. Delta or D cells makeup only 7% of pancreatic islet cells and secrete somatostatin (it is similar as of growth Hormone– and Hormone secreted by the Pituitary Glands). F cells makes up the remaining pancreatic islet cells and are majorly involved in the secretion of pancreatic polypeptide.
Gonads are the organs that make gametes— male sperm and female oocytes. The gonads secrete Hormones in addition to their reproductive function. In the female pelvic cavity, the ovaries, paired oval bodies, produce several steroid Hormones including two estrogens (estradiol and estrone) and progesterone. Together with anterior Pituitary FSH and LH, these female sex Hormones regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and prepare the mammary Glands for lactation. They also promote breast enlargement and hip widening at puberty, as well as helping to maintain these secondary female sex features. Also, the ovaries produce inhibin, a protein Hormone that inhibits follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) secretion. The ovaries and placenta produce a peptide Hormone called relaxin during pregnancy, which increases the flexibility of pubic symphysis during pregnancy and helps to dilate the cervix during labor and delivery.
The male gonads, the testes, are in the scrotum oval Glands. Testosterone, an androgen or male sex Hormone, is the main Hormone produced and secreted by the testes. Testosterone stimulates pre-born testing, regulates sperm production, and stimulates the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics, such as beard growth and voice deepening. Inhibin is also produced here, which inhibits the further secretion of FSH.
Body tissues other than those normally classified as Endocrine Glands contain Endocrine tissue and secrete Hormones, including the gastrointestinal tract, placenta, kidneys, skin, and heart.
The Endocrine System is made up of Endocrine Glands and other tissues that secrete Hormones. Hormones only affect specific target cells with receptors to recognize (bind) a particular Hormone. The number of Hormone receptors may decrease or increase (up-regulation) (down-regulation). Circulating Hormones enter the bloodstream; local Hormones affect neighboring cells locally. Hormones are chemically either lipid-soluble (steroids, Thyroid Hormones, nitric oxide) or water-soluble (amines; peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins; and eicosanoids).